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Disease Prevention and Health Guidelines

    • Birth - 17 Years


    • Recommendations

      A regularly scheduled check up at at 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months of age. Annual visits from ages 2 to 6. Visits every other year for ages 6 to 17.


      Screening Tests - Birth to 17

      Screening

      Recommendations

      Vision

      Screening at or before age 5.

      Obesity

      Monitor periodically throughout childhood starting at age 6.

      Chlamydia/Gonorrhea for sexually active women

      Check yearly for sexually active females ages 15 to 24 years.
      HIV

      Check between ages 15 and 65.

      HPV

      Females and males ages 11 to 14 years should receive a two-dose series, and females ages 15 to 26 and males ages 15 to 21 should receive a three-dose series.



      Immunizations - Birth to 17

      Immunizations

      Recommendations

      Hepatitis B

      Birth, 1 month, 6 months

      HIB (Haemophilus influenza type B)

      2 month, 4 months, 6 months, 12 months

      Polio

      2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 4-5 years

      Tdap (Diphtheria, Tetanus and acellular Pertussis)

      2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 18 months, 4-5 years
      Rotavirus Vaccine2 months, 4 months, 6 months
      Pneumococcal vaccination2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 12 months
      MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella)12 months, 4-5 years
      VZV (Chickenpox, Varicella Vaccine)12 months, 4-5 years
      Hepatitis A12 months, 18 months
      Influenza (Flu)6 months, 18 months, 2 years, 4-5 years, 11-18 years
      Conjugated Meningococcal vaccine11-18 years
      HPV (Human Papillomavirus)Girls, 11-18 years

    • 18 to 39 Years


    • Screening Tests - Ages 18-39

      Screening

      Recommendations

      HIV Screening

      Between ages 15-65
      WOMEN'S HEALTH
      Chlamydia/Gonorrhea for sexually active womenCheck yearly for sexually active females ages 15 to 24 years.

      Cervical Cancer ScreeningPap test every three years for all women ages 21 to 29. Pap test with HPV screening every five years for all women ages 30 to 65.
      PregnancyIf you are pregnant or able to get pregnant, take a daily vitamin or supplement containing 0.4 to 0.8 mg of folic acid. Talk to your doctor about more steps for a healthy pregnancy.
      MEN'S HEALTH
      CholesterolCheck every five years starting at age 35.



      Immunizations - Ages 18-39

      Immunizations

      Recommendations

      Tdap/Td

      Adults younger than age 65 should receive a tetanus vaccine (Tdap or Td) every 10 years.

      HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

      Unvaccinated females ages 15 to 26 and males ages 15 to 21 should receive a three-dose series.

      Influenza

      Yearly

      VZV (Chicken pox, Varicella Vaccine)

      A vaccine for adults born in 1980 or later.

    • 40 to 49 Years


    • Screening Tests - Ages 40-49

      Screening

      Recommendations

      HIV Screening

      Between ages 15-65

      Hep C

      Screening for those born between 1945-1965
      WOMEN'S HEALTH
      Cervical Cancer ScreeningPap test with HPV screening every five years for all women ages 30 to 65.
      PregnancyAll females who are pregnant or able to get pregnant should take a daily vitamin or supplement containing 0.4 to 0.8 mg of folic acid. Talk to your doctor about additional steps for a healthy pregnancy.
      Breast Cancer ScreeningMammography is optional every other year. Talk to your doctor about your options for breast cancer screening. It’s your decision whether to start screening before the age of 50.
      MEN'S HEALTH
      CholesterolCheck every five years starting at
      age 35.



      Immunizations - Ages 40-49

      Immunizations

      Recommendations

      Tdap/Td

      Adults younger than age 65 should receive a tetanus vaccine (Tdap or Td) every 10 years.

      Influenza

      Yearly

      MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella):

      Adults ages 19 to 59 should have recorded in their chart at least one dose of the vaccine.

    • 50 to 74 Years


    • Screening Tests - Ages 50-74

      Screening

      Recommendations

      HIV Screening

      Between ages 15-65

      Hep C

      Screening for those born between 1945-1965
      Colon CancerPreferred Screening Options — A colonoscopy every 10 years, a stool FIT* test every year or a sigmoidoscopy every 10 years with annual FIT testing. Other Options— A CT colonography every five years or a FIT/DNA test every three years.
      *FIT= Fecal Immunochemical Test

      WOMEN'S HEALTH
      Cervical Cancer ScreeningPap test with HPV screening
      every five years for all women ages 30 to 65.
      Breast CancerMammography every two years.
      MEN'S HEALTH
      CholesterolCheck every five years.
      Prostate Cancer:Talk to your doctor about your risk. Regular screening is not recommended for men who have an average risk.



      Immunizations - Ages 50-74

      Immunizations

      Recommendations

      Tdap/Td (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis/Tetanus and Diphtheria)

      Adults younger than age 65 should receive a tetanus vaccine (Tdap or Td) every 10 years.

      MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella):

      Adults ages 19 to 59 should have recorded in their chart at least one dose of the vaccine.

      Influenza

      Yearly

      Zoster (Shingles)Vaccine for adults at age 60.
      Pneumococcal VaccineAt least two vaccinations (injections) one year apart beginning at age 65.

    • 75 and Older


    • Screening Tests - Ages 75+

      Screening

      Recommendations

      Colon Cancer

      The decision to screen for colorectal cancer in adults ages 76 to 85 years should be an individual one, taking into account the patient’s overall health and prior screening history.

      WOMEN'S HEALTH
      Breast CancerMammography is optional after age 74.
      MEN'S HEALTH
      Prostate CancerTalk to your doctor about your risk. Regular screening is not recommended for men who have an average risk.



      Immunizations - Ages 75+

      Immunizations

      Recommendations

      Tdap/Td (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis/Tetanus and Diphtheria)

      Adults age 65 and older may receive a tetanus vaccine (Tdap or Td) every 10 years.

    • Glossary

    • Body Mass Index: Your weight in relation to your height
      BMI = Weight (pounds) / Height (inches)² x 703
      Use our online BMI calculator to determine your BMI

      BMI Range for Non-Asian Ethnicities
      Underweight: Under 19
      Healthy: 19 – 24.9
      Overweight: 25-29.9
      Obese: Greater than 29.9

      BMI Range for Asian Ethnicities
      Underweight: Under 18.5
      Healthy: 18.5 - 23
      Overweight: 23.1 - 25
      Obese: Greater than 25
      World Health Organization (WHO) | The Asia-Pacifc Perspective: Redefining Obesity and its Treatment - February 2000
      The Asia-Pacifc Perspective: Redefining Obesity

      Bone Density Test: A low dose x-ray to screen for risk of thinning and weakening of bones, which increase the risk of osteoporosis and fracture.
      Bone Density Test Overview

      Chlamydia/GC Screening Test: A screening test for detecting chlamydia and/or gonorrhea. Curable sexually transmitted infections that can cause scarring, infertility and chronic pelvic pain.
      Chlamydia Testing Overview
      Gonorrhea Test Overview

      Fecal Occult Blood Test: A screening test for hidden blood in the stool, which may be a sign of colon cancer. High sensitivity fecal occult test is preferred.
      Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) Overview

      HIV Test: A blood test to detect the presence of human immunodeficiency virus – a treatable infectious disease.
      HIV Test Overview

      Lipid Screen: A blood test for assessing levels of fats and cholesterol that can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.
      Cholesterol and Triglycerides Tests Overview

      Lower GI Endoscopy: Colonoscopy: An internal inspection of the entire colon to screen for cancer and polyps (pre-cancerous growths)
      Colonoscopy Test Overview

      Sigmoidoscopy: An internal inspection of the lower colon to screen for cancer and polyps (pre-cancerous growths)
      Sigmoidoscopy Test Overview

      Mammogram: A low dose breast x-ray to screen for breast cancer.
      Mammogram Overview

      Pap Test: A test for abnormal cervical cells which can indicate increased risk of cervical cancer. This is not a test for uterine or ovarian cancer. Pap smears are done during an internal pelvic examination.
      Pap Test Overview

      PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen): A blood test for measuring a protein produced by the prostate gland. High levels may indicate prostate cancer.
      PSA Overview

      Tdap: Tdap is currently recommended as a single dose for individuals age 11 through 64 years. Tdap is also recommended over age 6 years if prior DTaP cannot be documented and the individual has close contact with infants.
      Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis vaccine) Overview

    • References

    • References and supporting literature:

      • American Academy of Family Physicians. Clinician's Handbook of Preventive Services. U.S. Public Health Services; 1994.
        Case-Control Study of Screening Sigmoidoscopy and Mortality from Colorectal Cancer. Selby, J. NEJM 1992; 326:653-7.
      • Efficacy of Screening Mammography. Kerlikowski, K. JAMA. 1995; 273:149-154.
      • Screening for Colorectal Cancer. Toribara, N. NEJM 1995; 332:861-867.
      • Screening for Cervical Cancer. Eddy, D. Annals of Internal Medicine 1990; 113:214-226.
      • Screening for Prostate Cancer. Krahn, M. JAMA. 1994; 272:773-780. U.S Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins, 1996.
      • Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins, 1996.
      • Colorectal Cancer Screening Clinical Guidelines.Rational Winawer, S. et al. Gastroenterology 1997;112:594-642.

      Recommended reading:

      • Healthwise Handbook. Donald W. Kemper, Healthwise, Inc.
        Caring for Your Baby and Young Child. The American Academy of Pediatrics.
      • Take Care of Yourself. By Vickery & Fries.
      • Taking Care of Your Child. By Pantell, Vickery & Fries.
      • Living Well. Taking Care of Your Health in the Middle and Later Years. By Fries.
      • Cuidate: Guia para una mejor atencion medica. By Vickery & Fries.

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